High Fat Diet-Fed, Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Model: Is It an Ideal Type 2 Diabetic Model?

Antony PJ, Sivasankaran K, Ignacimuthu S, Al-Dhabi

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex chronic metabolic disorder with an epidemic prevalence, affecting 100 million people worldwide. To combat T2DM, more appropriate experimental animal models that mimic human T2DM conditions are needed. These animal models can be developed either spontaneously or induced by chemicals, diet or surgical manipulations individually or in combination. High fat diet-fed, streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-treated rat model combines two different stressors, namely feeding the rats on HFD to induce dyslipidemia, hyperpreinsulinemia, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance followed by administering a β-cell toxin namely, streptozotocin (STZ) to reduce functional β-cell mass in order to simulate human diabetic condition. This review primarily focuses on the suitability and effectiveness of HFD/STZ diabetic experimental obese rat model in simulating human T2DM. The use of HFD fed STZ-induced diabetic rat model for the last two decades of diabetic research undoubtedly establishes the relevance and effectiveness of this model. In this review, we discuss its development, rationale, underlying causes/mechanism(s) and merits and demerits.We hope that this review will lead to better understanding of the disease as well as developing more effective experimental animal model for diabetes research.

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